- Election date: January 6, 1946

- Rate of turnout: 89%

- Total of deputies: 403

- Number of elected deputies: 333

- Number of deputies chosen not via election: 70 (including 20 from “Viet Nam Cach menh Dong minh Hoi” [or “Viet Cach” - Vietnam Revolutionary League] and 50 from “Viet Nam Quoc dan Dang” [or “Viet Quoc” - Vietnamese Nationalist Party] under a pre-election agreement reached on December 24, 1945 between “Viet Nam Doc lap Dong minh Hoi” [or “Viet Minh” - Vietnam Independence League] and “Viet Cach” and “Viet Quoc”. This reflected the Viet Minh’s policy of national concord and pooling resistance forces against the French colonialists.

- Structure of National Assembly:

+ Workers, farmers, revolutionaries: 87%

+ Members of different parties: 57%

+ Non-partisans: 43%

+ Ethnic minority people: 10.2%

+ Women: 3%

Characteristics and Marks of the term

The first National Assembly was the first parliament of independent Vietnam, marking the development of democracy in the new Vietnam.
The National Assembly came into being amid the fierce struggle to gain and defend national independence and freedom. The birth of the National Assembly was both an achievement and an urgent requirement of the revolution. The first National Assembly was one of national independence, unity, and solidarity.
Via its 12 sessions, especially the activities of its Standing Committee, the National Assembly constantly stood side-by-side with the Government to steer the resistance and nation building efforts.
The National Assembly passed two Constitutions of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (the 1946 and the 1959), with the 1946 being the first that began the process of building and perfecting the socialist legal system in the country.
While the whole country had to concurrently complete national liberation and gradually carry out democratic reform, the first National Assembly greatly contributed to the protracted resistance war against the French colonialists, with the peak being the resounding victory of the Dien Bien Phu Campaign which brought the north to the socialism building period and continued the fight for the liberation of the south, towards the national reunification.
President Ho Chi Minh was the soul of the revolution, the resistance war, and national construction; the nucleus of the solidarity of the country and the National Assembly; and the one showing the way for the parliament to weather critical moments in history, orienting the National Assembly to making major policies, and leading Vietnam to glorious victories. He was the very soul of the National Assembly of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

Outstanding sessions

* The first session on March 2, 1946, at the Hanoi Opera House

- The National Assembly recognised:

+ The list of members of the Resistance Coalition Government, led by President Ho Chi Minh

+ The list of members of the Resistance Committee, chaired by Vo Nguyen Giap

+ The list of the national advisory board, led by Supreme Advisor Vinh Thuy (former Emperor Bao Dai)

- The National Assembly elected:

+ The National Assembly Standing Committee, led by Nguyen Van To

+ The 11-member Constitution Drafting Committee

* The second session from October 28 to November 9, 1946:

- The National Assembly elected its 18-member Standing Committee, led by Bui Bang Doan

- The National Assembly adopted the 1946 Constitution

* The fifth session from September 15 to 20, 1955:

- The National Assembly set up the guidelines and principles for the struggle for the implementation of the Geneva Accords and for the national reunification on the basis of independence and democracy, along with orientations and solutions for recovering the economy and consolidating the north to serve as the base for the struggle for national peace and reunification.

- The National Assembly made decisions on some issues related to the State apparatus, the national flag, the national anthem, and the national emblem.

- The National Assembly elected Ton Duc Thang as Chairman of its Standing Committee.

* The 11th session on December 18, 1959:

- The National Assembly adopted the 1959 Constitution.

The first tenure lasted from January 1946 to May 1960 with 12 sessions.

Laws passed by the 1st National Assembly

  • November 9, 1946 :
    Adopting the 1946 Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
  • January 1, 1960 :
    Promulgating the Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, which was adopted by the National Assembly on December 31, 1959
  • November 8, 1946 :
    Approving the draft labour law
  • December 19, 1953 :
    Promulgating the land reform law
  • May 20, 1957 :
    + Promulgating the law on guaranteeing people’s right to physical freedom and to the inviolability of the home, belongings, and letters
    + Promulgating the law on the right to form associations
    + Promulgating the law on the right to freedom of association
    + Promulgating the law on the press
  • November 5, 1957 :
    Promulgating the law on trade unions
  • September 14, 1957 :
    + Passing the publication law
    + Passing the law on violators caught red-handed and on emergencies
    + Passing the law prohibiting economic speculation
    + Passing the law on rules on the election of all-level People’s Councils and Administrative Committees
    + Passing the law on the organisation of local administrations promulgated on May 31, 1958
  • May 31, 1958 :
    Promulgating the law on service of officers of the Vietnam People’s Army
  • January 13, 1960 :
    + Promulgating the law on the election of deputies to the National Assembly of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
    + Promulgating the law on marriage and family
  • April 28, 1960 :
    Promulgating the law on military obligations.